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It's time for Africa, the Continent between the future and the past epos_print_logo.png
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It's time for Africa, the Continent between the future and the past

Monday, 27 July 2015 08:34
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Epos converses with Fulvio Beltrami

by Nicolamaria Coppola (EPOS)
EPOS Conversations


Fulvio Beltrami is an Italian journalist native of North Italy who has been living in Africa since 1993. He is based in Kampala, Uganda, and he has followed all the main events happened in Africa in the last 20 years. He is one of the main expert of Africa politics and issues, and all his analysis are exclusively from the ground. He is Africa Reporter for Italian Newspaper L’Indro and African Voices website information about Africa. He manages a blog inside the Italian newspaper ReteLuna: "Frammenti Africani".

In the following exclusive interview for EPOS, Fulvio Beltrami analyses the current situation in Nigeria, focusing on Boko Haram and what has gone on behind the scenes. He marks the differences between the policy of President Buhari and his predecessor Jonathan towards Boko Haram, highlighting all the actors involved in the battle against terrorism. He ties the fate of Nigeria to that one of other African countries such us Somalia, Uganda, Kenya, Sudan, and he examines the effects of the European imperialism in these states. He discusses the concept of Pan Africanism related to politics, economy and society, giving EPOS readers an illuminating point of view on the present and the future of the Continent.

Nicolamaria Coppola, EPOS: It is an established fact that over 625 killings have been recorded since 30th May 2015 in the hands of the Boko HaramIslamic insurgency. It is also correct to observe that at least 380 innocent citizens of rural extraction have been slaughtered since May 2015 in the hands of the Fulani Islamic Terror group, erroneously called “Fulani Herdsmen”. Over 1000 terror killings have been recorded since May 2015, mostly under Alhaji Muhammadu Buhari’s Presidency. How do you explain the increasing of terroristic attacks in these first months of Buhari's presidency? Can we talk of revival or increasing of terrorism, or it is just an illusion?

Fulvio Beltrami: At nowadays in North Nigeria there is a similar situation than Somalia where terrorist Islamic group Al-Shabaab has been almost military defeated by African forces led by Ugandan People Defence Forces (UPDF) but still able to do terrorist attack in Somalia and Kenya.  Boko Haram has been seriously beat by regional African coalition meanly thanks to the well trained and equipped Chad Army,. Nigerian Army too seems have taken the initiative for the first time in the last 5 years destroying Boko Haram important bases and killing thousands of militants. Boko Haram is losing ground in its so-called "Nigerian Islamic Caliphate" on north of the country. Unable to confront regular Armies on battle field Boko Haram is forced to utilise terrorist attacks. A military strategy more difficult to intercept or prevent. The barbaric utilisation of women and children in order to carry out the terrorist attacks show that Boko Haram is finding itself in difficulties. It’s more appropriate to talk about a semi military defeat of the Islamic group than a revival or increasing of terrorism.

Nicolamaria Coppola, EPOS: How does Buhari differ from his predecessor Jonathan in tackling Boko Haram?

Fulvio Beltrami: President Buhari has two meanly advantages over his predecessor. It’s an experimented Army Official veteran of Biafra war and he’s a Muslim from north. This allow him to better control and manage Nigerian Army, to gain popular support by northern populations and to find a better collaboration on battle field with Chad Army Chief of Commands because he share their same culture, religion and ethnic links. He’s coming not from President Idriss Debi Itno tribe (Zagawa) but the ethnic trans-border links are strong enough to have a common understand. During the Military regime time he has conquest a good reputation inside the Army. He can also be sure to have the full support from Nigerian Military Complex that they were really unhappy to be ruled by a civilian at the time of former President Jonathan Goodluck. One important result is the decrease of revenge acts and massacres against Muslim population in North respect the ones done by Special Forces sent by former president Goodluck. This has sensible increase the population support to Central Government.

Nicolamaria Coppola, EPOS: Is Boko Haram just a group of fanatics of a radical islam or a tool in the hands of political experts who are maneuvering behind the scenes?

Fulvio Beltrami: Boko Haram in reality doesn’t exist. It just a name where are regrouped several terrorist groups some time in open contrast between them. Originally born from Fulani tribe Boko Haram has been contaminated in the past ten years by several terrorist organisations and foreign mercenaries. Last May has been officially declared Boko Haram affiliation to ISIS. Theoretically Boko Haram has joint Daesh-ISIS to form a Great Islamic Caliphate of Africa: from Egypt to Senegal incorporating Sicily and Spain territories. In reality inside of Boko Haram there are several groups that don’t approve the tactic alliance with ISIL and the increasing presence of foreign jihadist’s mercenaries inside their ranks. As they don’t approve terrorist attacks against civilians meanly if are Muslims.

Because of Boko Haram is not a single military and political entity during these years this Islamic group has been victims of many political exploitations. First of all done by northern Generals and politicians, most of them linked with President Buhari. Since 2012 military campaigns against Boko Haram have been systematically boycotted with the objective to weak President Goodluck authorities and increase the population alienation against the "man from south". This explain why the most significant military success against Boko Haram are registering now under Buhari Administration.

Political exploitations have a foreign matrix too. Al-Qaeda Maghreb and Daesh-ISIS have heavy infiltrated their men on Boko Haram chain of command. They have bought many Nigerian terrorist groups that recognize themselves under Boko Haram flag, trough financial support. Boko Haram is useful for them in order to create another terrorist front in Africa and to compensate the military losses registered in Somalia and the failure to create new fronts in Algeria, Chad,Morocco and Uganda. Actually Daesh-ISIS and Al-Qaeda Maghreb have two major battle fields: North Nigeria and Libya. Tunisia and Egypt are under attack but there are not yet possibilities to create Nigerian and Somali situations in these two countries. Khartoum Government contribution against Daesh-ISIS is complicating the expansion of radical Islam in North and West Africa. The paradox is that Omar al-Bashir, considered a bloody dictator spotted by ICC, it’s the best Western ally in the war against terrorism in Africa, since the times of Bush Administration. The recent peace initiatives between Khartoum and Washington and the forecast progressive delate of international sanctions are a kind of prime for Sudan engagement.

Boko Haram foreign exploitation may came from West too. Several African analysts are starting to suspect that West Power are utilizing terrorist groups in order to undermine African Economic Renaissance. These suspects are extended to Kenya and Uganda too. It has been noted strange interferences of US and UK in Kenya and several hidden attempts to undermine Yoweri Museveni regime in Uganda utilizing terrorism. If Kenya is a perfect victims because of its Army inefficiency and Government high corruption, in Uganda is almost impossible to play games because of Museveni full control of the country. These suspects they lack of probe so they are destined to remain still confined on the nebulous universe of the conspiracy theories. Anyway we cannot forget that African Economic Renaissance is built on natural resources nationalist policies and industrial revolution. Uganda has already clarified that 60% of its immense oil reserve will not be exported in Europe, US or Asia. Uganda oil will serve to develop the country and the region. These nationalist policies directly undermine West capacity to obtain cheap oil and minerals from the Continent, vital for its economy in deep crisis. In one way or another West Powers will react to these trend. We cannot forget that the 1994 – 2014 war and instability period in Democratic Republic of Congo and several other civil wars in Africa have been originated by Western necessity to have the full control of oil and minerals: from gold to diamonds, from iron to copper, from uranium to coltan.

Nicolamaria Coppola, EPOS: Do you think that Boko Haram want to drang Nigeria into civil war like the one which took place in Biafra between 1967 and 1970?

Fulvio Beltrami: Absolutely no! Boko Haram have no possibility to drang Nigeria into a civil war for several reasons. The conglomerate of national and foreign terrorist groups that form Boko Haram. The lack of political proposals. The horrible massacres against northern civilians. The lack of unified command and political representation. Boko Haram is a serious treat but  time-delimitated because lack of prospective and vision for the future. Its success has been registered in the past years because of Goodluck Administration weakness and the constant boycott of several Generals from Army and Northern politicians that are the base for the support of President Buhari. It the last analysis Boko Haram is a temporally phenomenon more dangerous on the Media’s imaginary than in reality. They are able to massacre innocent civilians but they run away instead to face disciplined and modern Armies.

Surprising Biafra independent feeling has not dead. In modern Nigeria we register an increase reinforcement of Pro-Biafra independents movements that are now receiving straight by the election of a Muslim President from North, considered by many southern people an outrage. As clearly explained by the colleagues Ludovica Iaccino, African reporter for International Business Times, Pro-Biafra independents movements may will be the next treat for Nigerian unity, more dangerous than Boko Haram. "Hundred of people from Nigeria’s former Eastern Region (renamed Republic of Biafra during the three year of independence war between 1967 and 1970) are calling for a second independence and are accusing President Buhari to trying to Islamise the southern part of Nigeria, mainly inhabited by Christians", Mrs Iaccino said.

IBT reporter from Africa underlines that in the last years in Eastern Region have been registered the increase of movements pro Biafra like Massob and Ipob. The allegation against President Buhari to trying to Islamise South Nigeria seems really artificial. It’s based on the relocation of some Boko Haram members to Ekwulobia Prison in the southern Anambra state. A relocation ordered for security reason that cannot justify the Islamise accusation. Pro-Biafra movements may be utilize by President Buhari opposition and former President Goodluck to create the same difficulties that Buhari has created to Goodluck Administration boycotting several military campaigns against Boko Haram in North Nigeria. Buhari government said it does not consider the separatist pro-Biafra movement in the south as a threat to the country.  This may be a fatal mistake of artificial religion tensions and independent feeling underestimation.

Nicolamaria Coppola, EPOS: How religious leaders can contribute to stop this fanatism?

Fulvio Beltrami: Religious leaders are already contributing to stop Boko Haram fanatism. There is unofficial alliance between Muslim and Catholic religious leaders to fight Boko Haram. Muslims Imams have denounced as Evil the terrorist group, sent Coran anathemas against Boko Haram leaders and clarified to their believes that Boko Haram is against Coran law and Allah willing. All this in  clear attempt to stop the terrorist sympathies and support creating popular alienation against Boko Haram. An attempt facilitated by the foolish tactic of several Boko Haram groups. 85% of Boko Haram victims are Muslims. We can assert that Boko Haram is the first treat for Nigerian Muslim community. Church and catholic communities attacks are sporadically perpetuate and only when Boko Haram has need to catch International Medias attention.

Catholic priests and Bishops have avoided transform the war against Boko Haram in a religious war. The majority of Nigerian Catholics doesn’t consider Boko Haram representing Muslims. They don’t fell a Muslim treat in their country. All this thanks to information and education operas done by the Catholic Church. This unwritten alliance is visible on the battle field. In several occasions Imam have protected Catholics from Boko Haram attacks and vice versa. In Nigeria we are assisting to an interesting and unique experimentation of Muslim and Catholic synergy on the goodwill of the population. Inter faith alliance in Nigeria should better study in order to duplicate it on other terrorist battle field: from Egypt to Syria.

Nicolamaria Coppola, EPOS: How far do you think the approach of the Federal Government to MEND, the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta,  holds lessons for dealing with Boko Haram?

Fulvio Beltrami: As I explained before MEND approach cannot work with Boko Haram. MEND was a popular rebellion movement originated by social and economic injustices. Boko Haram is totally alien to Muslim northern population. Many Western Medias have offer to public opinion easy explanations of Boko Haram representing them as reaction of northern population emarginated by Central Government and the South. The lack of popular support to Boko Haram in the North show how these explanations were unrealistic and totally wrongs. Military option remains the only one available on the ground. A military option done on African way: the extermination of the enemy. It’s sad to admit but in some cases Western juridical guaranties are inappropriate to resolve major treats. North economic and social development are off course necessary and many hard tests are incumbent over President Buhari. He has been elected by a good percentage of southern voters too because he is considered as a good opportunity to resolve northern instability creating justice and development by a northern man. Objective not easy to reach. To establish justice and development in North Nigeria, President Buhari must go against several northern and Muslims Generals and Governors responsible of the inacceptable population conditions, corruption and mismanagement of public funds. The same Generals and Governors that have support him during the electoral campaign.

Nicolamaria Coppola, EPOS: When President Buhari was inaugurating the National Economic Summit on June 29, he spoke about the G7 agreeing to support Nigeria with military equipment to fight Boko Haram. And the U.S is a member of the G7. Do you have any information as to the nature of this support?

Fulvio Beltrami: Buhari request of Western help against Boko Haram is based on the same strategy of former President Goodluck: obtain financial support but not military western coalition intervention. This strategy is based on the clear understand that ones Nigeria will have Western troops in its soil will loose the Sovranity as Iraq and Afghanistan have clearly demonstrated. This policy has not really welcome by West, meanly by U.S. and France that are looking to increase their penetration on Nigerian oil market. U.S. and France are giving logistic support to military African coalition fighting Boko Haram. U.S. President Barak Obama in his recent visit in Nigeria has promised $5 millions of financial aid in support of military campaign. Anyway Nigerian Governments intransigency over foreign direct military intervention remains not really appreciated by Western Power. It’s considered as another dangerous signal of Africa intention to divorce from West.

Nicolamaria Coppola, EPOS: On January 4,  Buhari stated that he would have favoured freedom of religion, that every Nigerian should be free and secure to practice their different religions. Buhari said: “Religion must never be used as an excuse to divide us, oppress others or gain unfair advantage. All my life I have expressed the belief that all Nigerians must worship God according to their wish”. What was the role of the religious identity in the elections and what is the role of religion in Nigerian daily life and politics?

Fulvio Beltrami: From my personal point of view religion identity as we intend us in Europe has no big role in Nigeria population daily live. Nigerian remains attached to their Animist religions, to their magic believe that Nolliwood show very well in its movies and popular series. Allah and Jesus Christ are aliens symbols bring from Arabic traders and Western coloniser.  Muslim and Christian religions have accepted to been contaminated by Animist believes in order to be accepted in the country. Institutional religions are more important on Nigerian political universe create over the power desire, corruption and intrigues. In any case Buhari seems sincere about the refuse to permit religion to divide the population and to respect religion freedom in the country.  There are no suspects that Buhari will permit  Islam to spread its ideology over Nigeria and his relation with Saudi Arabia (the first sponsor of Sunny Islam in the world) are purely formal and not really important.

Nicolamaria Coppola, EPOS: Buhari has always been sensitive towards Christians. Do you think he is trying to placate his non-supporters?

Fulvio Beltrami: Personally I think that Buhari has no need to placate his non-supporter became more near to Christian comunity. Muslim and Catholic alliance, the heavy domination of Animism and the fact that many southern Christians have voted for him, are indicators that the way to be accepted don’t pass trough the religion. Buhari real test will be his capacity to develop the North, reduce the corruption, increase Nigerian economic and financial worldwide independence, decrease social inequities, increase popular welfare and richness. Resolve Nigerian economy sickness created by “Dutch disease”: an economy meanly concentrated on oil and gas industry. Reinforce the industrialisation process and became a reliable partner for the future world Powers: BRICS countries.

Nicolamaria Coppola, EPOS: You are an expert of Africa and African issues, and you have been living in Africa for ages. According to your opinion and experience, what is the main problem of Nigeria and Africa? Is it religious fanaticism, corruption or what else?

Fulvio Beltrami: From a Pan Africanist point of view the mainly Africa problems are West imperialism, its natural resources eternal need and Africa incapacity to build a real political, cultural and moral independence. All the others problems are secondary consequences. Civil wars, corruption, are historically demonstrated that has been often create by West Powers exploiting African weakness. Western imperialism is anyway an easy and false explanation if we don’t take in consideration African complicity. We must not forget that African tribes were given slaves to Arabs, English, Dutch and Frenchs fighting rival ethnic groups. All Colonial Armies were composted by niggers at 80%. These Africans have never hesitated to massacre their brothers in order to maintain privileges offered by White Buana. At the moderns time still same African Presidents are very happy to play Western’s monkey role.

Nicolamaria Coppola, EPOS: Africa, as a continent, is a rising economic power, and Nigeria is growing quite fast: the economy has enjoyed sustained economic growth for a decade, with annual real GDP increasing by around 7%. It was 6.3% in 2014. The non-oil sector has been the main driver of growth, with services contributing about 57%, while manufacturing and agriculture, respectively contributed about 9% and 21%. The economy is thus diversifying and is becoming more services-oriented, in particular through retail and wholesale trade, real estate, information and communication. The 2015 outlook is for moderate growth of 5%, due to vulnerability to slow global economic recovery, oil-price volatility and global financial developments. Do you think that Nigeria could become an economic hub in Africa?

Fulvio Beltrami: Africa is the last frontier of the Capitalism and in the same time its future. A future that will may be totally different to the ones that we Western people are imagining. This is creating a lot of anxieties on Western Powers. The reality is that West is facing, social, moral and economic decadences. Africa is booming. Nigeria, as Morocco, Algeria, Egypt, South Africa, Rwanda, Ghana,  Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda are already economic hubs in Africa. The Continent will be a real World Power only if its governments will be able to resolve the present contradictions: corruption, employment, poverty. Contradictions able to compromise African future success. I cannot predict if Africa will be able to reach the target but it is evident the political willing to do it. This is the real News from Africa, unlucky not yet very well understood by West. We are still prisoners of an old Africa vision (poverty, wars, famine) in constantly need of our help. An old Africa that is dying leaving the place to a New Order totally different of the Western one. Who leave permanently here like me has the unique opportunity to be witness of this historical change still invisible from far.

Nicolamaria Coppola, EPOS: What do you think of the Chinese investments and Russian politics in Nigeria and Africa in the last two decades? Have they helped the continent to come out from the "stagnation" or not?

Fulvio Beltrami: First of all "stagnation" is an appropriate term for Africa. Economic development between 8 and 5 per cent, internal debt ratio with PIL not superior of 50%, industrialisation process starting and scientific independent research boom are not symptoms of stagnation. If we look about civil wars and instability we will discover that only 8 countries suffer of it, meanly former French colonies.

BRICS countries are placed themselves on the Winner position because they have understood African mentality and needs. West has always refused to share technology and to help Africa to start its own industrial revolution. According to our strategies Africa is condemned eternally to remain our food and natural resources basket. China and the others BRICS countries are starting to share technology and finance industrial revolution. This is the most dangerous attack to West done by BRICS. The objective is easy to understand: transforming Africa in the Third World economic power after West and Asia stopping the exportation of natural resources to West. Industrialisation revolution starting in Africa is totally linked to national management of natural resources.

In the following decades will assist to an heavy decrease of oil and mineral exportation to West because are needed in Africa. The trick is that the industrialisation revolution is done by technology sharing and BRICS industry delocalisation process. In two decade we will assist to a scarcity of African natural resources procurement for West and Chines, Brazilians, Indians, Russians industrial hubs implemented in Africa. BRICS industrial Corporates will have all oil and minerals available and without logistic and transport heavy costs. It’s not a case that China for the first time has sent combat troops in South Sudan to defend its oil interests and is opening its first military navy base in Djibout. They know the West war primitive mentality and they are taking their precautions. The African process is very clear to African governments and BRICS countries but not yet understood by West. This is the advantage for the so called "enemies".

Nicolamaria Coppola, EPOS: Africa has the youngest population in the world, and unemployment among the youth is high. How concerned are you about this?

Fulvio Beltrami: Africa’s population on 2050 will be 2 billion, the double of 2010 registered. At the present 60% of African is under 26. The estimated number of youth joining labour market on 2015 is 19 million in Sub-Saharan Africa and 4 million in North Africa. Over the next 15 years the figure will be 370 million and 65 million respectively. The upcoming growth in Africa’s workforce represents two-thirds of the growth in the workforce worldwide. These data show how is important to focus on youth issues: education and jobs. African Governments are starting to be aware about this considering that since 2012 all Continental social unrests (Egypt, Tunisia, Libya, Burkina Faso and the present one in Burundi) are originated by lack of job opportunities and future for the youths. The starting industrialisation revolution will resolve part of the problem but it’s crucial that opportunities will be granted everywhere, both in cities and rural areas, so that people can make the choice of were they want live and work. Agriculture must be financed appropriately inverting the present tendency to neglect in favour of new frontiers: IT, Communication, oil and mining sectors, industry.

Most of East Africa Governments are concentrating their efforts to create jobs in productive sectors and to increase the participation in the wealth accumulated over the past decade. Other strategies are concentred over education meanly for girls. “Increasing investments in girls education could lead to a faster demographic transition and a steeper decline in birthday rates” agues Henri-Bernard Solignac-Leconte, head of Europe, Middle East and Africa at Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development (OECD).  A demographic control is needed even if some analyst underline that the present youth boom is determined by past decades of war and high mortality (HIV/AIDS infection included). The trend may be reversed in the future decades. Already now we are assisting to a strong decrease of conflicts in the Continent and an improvement of health facilities. First causes of death: tuberculosis, malaria and HIV/AIDS (in order of importance) are better managed. HIV/AIDS infection rates are in drastically decline even if African Government are keeping high percentages in order to receive more international funds. On 2040 in Africa we will live longer and better. This can see as an optimistic vision of African future that contrasts to how West public opinion is used to consider Africa. In reality it’s reflecting the Continental trend that can be reversed off course but it has good possibility to become a reality. Nigeria in this field is still link to unappropriated policies make by an old and corrupt political elite.

Nicolamaria Coppola, EPOS: How would you assess the current level of young people’s involvement in politics in Nigeria and Africa in general?

Fulvio Beltrami: Normally the Old generation have the power in Africa even if they represent a minority of the population. They came from corrupt regimes subordinated to West Powers or by the Revolution Generation like Yoweri Museveni or Paul Kagame. In any case all African leaders remain linked to the old generation more concentrated to maintain their privileges than offer space to the youths. Rwanda is an exception. The country has the youngest political generation, most of them composed by women. Female participation rate in government and private sector is the highest of the world. In several countries the present generation on power is trying to prepare generation power change, like Uganda. A change that is more focus on status quo maintaining than to improve Western concept of democracy. Ugandan President is preparing to hand over the country to his son: General Muhoozi on 2020. In Nigeria we are assisting to a strange phenomenon. The youth participation is concentred on productive and private sector not in policy universe still in the hand of Nigerian Dinosaurs. This situation is creating to a double reality. From one side youth entrepreneurs and businessmen are exporting Nigerian trade mark all over Africa conquer new markets. From the other side the old political generation is still think in terms of tribalism, ethnicity and privileges.  From Goodluck to Buhari it’s clear the strategy to impeach businessmen youth generation to influence the country policy. The situation is dangerous because of the young spirit of innovation can be destroyed by old politicians that have originated the Bad Nigeria: civil wars, inequality, corruption, inefficiency, discrimination and so on.

Nicolamaria Coppola, EPOS: What kind of days is ahead for Africa as a young continent? How do you forsee Nigeria’s future?

Fulvio Beltrami: Africa is between the future and the past. West Power will not easy accept to loose the Continent and other dramas are behind the corner. Take the example of Uganda. Because of its oil nationalist policy West Powers have tried to support several opposition leaders in order to reverse Museveni on power and place a more “reasonable” leader. At the beginning U.S. and U.K. have strong supported opposition leader Kizza Besyge till when he assumed extremist position after 2011 electoral defeat trying to create social arrest in the country. Now European Union is supporting former Prime Minister Amana Mbabazi that is contesting Museveni candidature for 2016 election. Mbabazi is known to be the most corrupt politician in Uganda. Italy too is involved in Mbabazi support financing several trips on Europe. Behind any democratic change consideration Italian support to Mbabazi is motivated by 2007 Museveni decision to avoid Italian Oil company ENI to participate to national oil market.

Several doubts are focus on U.K government attempt to create a military revolt in Uganda on 2014 supporting former Intelligence Chief: General Seisura. Doubts not yet proved because of the strong censure adopted by Museveni Administration on the issue.

All these Western interferences in Uganda has failed for two meanly reasons: Museveni full control of the country and the population unwilling to support opposition leaders that in reality are Museveni clones ready to sell the country to foreign powers for personal gains. Form Besige to Mbabazi all opposition leaders are former UPDF Generals well positioned in the power establishment. They pass to the opposition only after had strong frictions with Museveni, off course over financial issues and corruption. After the probable Mbabazi failure to West countries will remain the only option to negotiate with Museveni Administration on power since 1987.

China, Russia and India understand better Africa, they applicate tnot interference strategy and win-win policy but are not African’s brothers. BRICS countries are trying to utilise Africa to damage West economies and West world domination. The good future of the Continent will depend to the capacity to control military and aggressive West feeling and BRICS hidden agendas. Really not easy task but not impossible.

Nigeria has a desperate need of political generation change before the old class may bring a prosperous and prominent nation to the collapse. Since 2012 Nigerian political leadership have assumed as political tactic against the adversaries to instigate movements dangerous for national unity or boycott the Government attempts to deal with terrorism. This is a real dangerous game that may go out of control with catastrophic consequences. Nigeria has a desperate need to renew its political class composed by inadequate and shellfish Dinosaurs. President Buhari promises to moralise Nigerian political environment may be not credible because of the President is part of this old generation and political linked to the "Bad Gays" that are playing with the future of the nation. How President Buhari can fight against this powerful lobby that in part has permit him to accede on power  without compromise himself remain a mystery.


Fulvio Beltrami tweets at @Fulviobeltrami


DISCLAIMER: The views expressed in this article are the interviewed’s own and do not necessarily reflect EPOS WorldView’s editorial policy

Last modified on Tuesday, 28 July 2015 09:43

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