Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 512

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 514

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 512

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 514

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 512

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 514

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 512

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 514

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 512

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 514

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 512

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 514

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 512

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 514

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 512

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 514

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 512

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 514

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 512

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 514

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 512

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 514

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 512

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 514

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 512

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 514

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 512

Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\libraries\joomla\filter\filterinput.php on line 514
Boko Haram (I): the origins of Nigeria's militant Islamist group
   
 
 
Subscribe

Warning: Creating default object from empty value in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\modules\mod_random_image\helper.php on line 85

Warning: Creating default object from empty value in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\modules\mod_random_image\helper.php on line 85

Warning: Creating default object from empty value in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\modules\mod_random_image\helper.php on line 85
The_grin_of_the_politician_and_Italy_thrown_away_in_the wind_small.png


Warning: Creating default object from empty value in D:\siti\eposweb.org\eposweb.org\components\com_k2\models\item.php on line 445

Boko Haram (I): the origins of Nigeria's militant Islamist group

 
Tuesday, 21 April 2015 09:44
 
Rate this item
(6 votes)

 

 

by Lorenzo Giuseppe Siggillino (EPOS)
EPOS Insights

 

Boko Haram was founded in 2002 in northern Nigeria by Mohammed Yusuf who was captured by police in 2009. Aboubakar Shekau obtained the leadership of the terrorist organization, leading Boko Haram towards a new stage. The social, cultural and ethnic divisions which affect Nigeria are important factors in the history of this militant Islamist group, and all these elements have had a fundamental and considerable impact on the spread of extremism and on the use of violence since the beginning.

In Nigeria, ethnic and religious cleavages are deep-rooted within the population. The State is almost equally divided between Christians and Muslims but this division is enshrined in a broader context composed of linguistic and cultural differences. Nigeria is the mostly and highly populated country in Africa, with about 173 million inhabitants belonging to more than 250 different ethnic groups. The North of the country is mainly inhabited by the Hausa-Fulani and by the Kanuri, which mainly inhabit the north-eastern States of Yobe and Borno. It is important to note and take in consideration that the State of Borno is the only Nigerian State which borders with 3 other African countries, Niger, Chad and Cameroon. In the North of Nigeria, Islam is the most common religion, with almost 100% of the adherences; Hausa and Kanuri are the most commonly spoken languages. In the southern areas of Nigeria, the population is composed of many ethnic groups, among which the most important are Igbo and Yoruba. In the South, the most practiced religion is Christianity.

Great Britain colonized Nigerian territories at the end of the XIX century when the North was governed by the Fulani Empire and the South was divided in two political entities, the first one in the West and second in the East. Great Britain controlled the North through indirect rule, in the wake of the Ottoman millet system and consistently with the European management methods of Middle Eastern and African colonies: the northern States were allowed to maintain Shari’a as the supreme law.

The South was reunified under the British Protectorate and was governed through direct rule, meaning that the territory was administered by British authorities appointed by the British monarchy. When the independence was achieved, in 1960, the northern leaders abandoned their claim to impose Shari’a as national law in exchange for some grants, in order and with the main aim to protect the Muslim minorities in the southern regions. In the North, Shari’a remained in force only in the Family Law and in the Succession Law.

Nigeria became an indipendent, and an officialy secular State, divided in three macro-regions which reproduce the political entities existing before the colonial rule, and which represent the three main ethnic groups belongings: the North is dominated by the Hausa, the South-West is controlled by the Yoruba, and the South-East is inhabited by the Igbo.

The three regions started to confront violently for the control of the federal institutions, in a competition in which ethnic and religious demands mixed with economic and social inequalities: the North of Nigeria has always been backward and underdeveloped, while the South, rich in oil and gas, has always been improving the living condition of the population thanks to the export of its natural resources. All the Nigerian oilfields are located in the southern part and the export of mineral resources accounts for 15-17% of the national GDP.

In 1967, the Igbo community tried to secede from Nigeria, after a suspect electoral fraud and after a coup organized by the Hausa. The south-eastern States inhabited by the Igbo declared their independence proclaiming the formation of the Biafra State, territory in which most of the oil reserves are located. The result was a long and exhausting civil war which lasted until 1970, concluded with the victory of the Nigerian regular army.

Nigerian unity was safeguarded, and a new Constitution was promulgated: according to the new Carta, the country was to be organized as a federation made up of 12 member States. The 1999 Constitution, which is still in force, further divided the country in 36 States and one Federal Territory.

1999 represents a watershed in Nigerian history from a political, social and religious point of view. The new Carta has granted autonomy to the member States, and has created a "national" court which has the task of discussing and solving disputes, and which is supervised, in first instance, by Shari’a courts. This generated the conditions for the return to the pre-independence system: from 2000 to 2015, 12 States in the North have adopted Shari’a as the supreme fundamental law, basing also the criminal law on the religious text.

Boko Haram was born and has proceed since the beginning in these conditions of instability.

Boko Haram literally means "Western education is forbidden". As previously mentioned, the group was founded in 2002 but its ideology had long-standing origins in Nigeria. After the independece, Mohammed Marwa started to preach in Nigerian northern regions. His sermons were characterized by extremism and inflexibility, he firmly condemned western culture. According to him, people were allowed to read only the Quran: every other book was forbidden because it represented paganism. He started to be recognized by the population as the "Maitatsine", which means "the one who curses".

During the '70 his movement began to grow up as it was backed up by all those Muslims who rejected the Western culture and the secular law. The Muslim authorities in the North started to accept and support Mohammed Marwa, while the number of followers rocketed. The "Yan Tatsine", this was the name of Marwa’s supporters, began to rise up against Nigerian authorities. In 1982 the uprisings increased and Nigerian police in turn brutally repressed them. Only in that year more than 7,000 people died and Marwa was one of the victims. Although the leader had died, the movement did not stop, the ideology remained alive and it was to be used again by Mohammed Yusuf in 2002.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

DISCLAIMER: The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect EPOS WorldView’s

Last modified on Tuesday, 05 May 2015 09:11
Login to post comments
EPOS PARTNERS
Epos Audio Playlist
Open in new window
Epos Suggested Links